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Grupo programa-asi

Público·159 miembros
Theodore Mikheev
Theodore Mikheev

Buy A Skull For Anatomy



Three-dimensional (3D) printed models represent educational tools of high quality compared with traditional teaching aids. Colored skull models were produced by 3D printing technology. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the learning efficiency of 3D printed skulls with that of cadaveric skulls and atlas. Seventy-nine medical students, who never studied anatomy, were randomized into three groups by drawing lots, using 3D printed skulls, cadaveric skulls, and atlas, respectively, to study the anatomical structures in skull through an introductory lecture and small group discussions. All students completed identical tests, which composed of a theory test and a lab test, before and after a lecture. Pre-test scores showed no differences between the three groups. In post-test, the 3D group was better than the other two groups in total score (cadaver: 29.5 [IQR: 25-33], 3D: 31.5 [IQR: 29-36], atlas: 27.75 [IQR: 24.125-32]; p = 0.044) and scores of lab test (cadaver: 14 [IQR: 10.5-18], 3D: 16.5 [IQR: 14.375-21.625], atlas: 14.5 [IQR: 10-18.125]; p = 0.049). Scores involving theory test, however, showed no difference between the three groups. In this RCT, an inexpensive, precise and rapidly-produced skull model had advantages in assisting anatomy study, especially in structure recognition, compared with traditional education materials.




buy a skull for anatomy



We offer a diverse range of anatomically accurate skulls, from foetal skull models to adult skull replicas for teaching and learning. Our collection includes disarticulated skulls, dental skulls with optional facial muscles, pathological skull models, anthropological skull replicas and more!


Learn about the structures of the head and neck, sutures on the skull, and facial muscles with our skull models! Whether it is for studying anthropology using skull replicas cast from specimens or introducing a fun element to a biology classroom with a scientifically accurate glow in the dark skull model, we are confident you will find your perfect skull model our collection. Shop from models created by AnatomyStuff, Erler Zimmer, 3B Scientific, ESP Models and more.


Sutures allow the bones to move during the birth process. They act like an expansion joint. This allows the bone to enlarge evenly as the brain grows and the skull expands. The result is a symmetrically shaped head. Some sutures extend to the forehead, while others extend to the sides and back of the skull. One suture in the middle of the skull extends from the front of the head to the back. The major sutures of the skull include the following:


There are 2 fontanelles (the space between the bones of an infant's skull where the sutures intersect) that are covered by tough membranes that protect the underlying soft tissues and brain. The fontanelles include:


Anatomy is the basis of modern medicine. It is one of the most complicated courses in medical curriculum due to the vast levels of knowledge needed and demands for spatial imagination. Cadaveric dissection is an indispensable part of anatomy, and is superior to two-dimensional (2D) atlases in facilitating knowledge acquisition. However, cadaveric dissection has always been associated with ethical concerns1, 2, difficulties and potential risks of preservation and disposal of specimens3. Further, shortage of donors is another limitation associated with cadaveric dissection in some countries2.


Structure of skull is always one of the most complicated areas of anatomy. Skull base models were used for endoscopic training6, and education in temporal bone anatomy16. However, no precise 3D printed skull models that focus on basicranial structures are available.


We generated 3D skull models, with each piece of skull bone colored differently, using data collected from computed tomography (CT). To evaluate the learning efficiency with 3D printed models of skull, we conducted an RCT comparing 2D atlases, cadaveric skulls and 3D printed skulls.


Photos of cadaveric skull and 3D-printed skull. (A) Cadaveric skull is showed in frontal, left, right and anterior views, respectively. Another four cadaveric skulls along with this one are used as teaching material for group 1. (B) 3D-printed skull is showed in frontal, left, right and anterior views, respectively. Five same 3D-printed skulls are used as teaching material for group 2.


Comparison between the repaired structures of cadaveric skull and printed skull. (A,C) Orbit of cadaveric and 3D-printed skull, respectively. (B,D) part of anterior view of cadaveric and 3D-printed skull, respectively. Comparison of superior orbital fissure (black arrows in (A,C)), anterior clinoid process (black arrows in (B,D)), and small holes on frontal bone (yellow circle in (B,D)) between cadaveric skulls and 3D-printed skulls are shown.


Participants included third-year medical students at PUMC, who completed their pre-medical study and not yet introduced to anatomy curriculum. The study was announced by a grade counsellor three days before the trial, and 79 out of 80 students in this grade entered the trial voluntarily. All the participants completed the trial, without loss to follow-up.


An RCT was designed to compare the learning efficiency of basicranial structures using three different learning materials separately. The flowchart of the study is displayed in Fig. 3. The 79 participants were randomly assigned to three groups by drawing lots. Each participant randomly selected a note marked with 1, 2 or 3. Twenty-six participants with note 1 were assigned to 3D printed skull group (3D group), 27 with note 2 to the cadaveric skull group (cadaver group), and 26 with note 3 to the 2D atlas group (atlas group). All participants finished pre-tests to record baseline data. They were administered a 30-min introductory lecture on basicranial anatomy by a third-party non-investigator. During the lecture, cadaveric, 3D printed and 2D atlases of skulls were allocated to the three groups, respectively, with five to six participants using a single model or single set of atlas. Five cadaveric skulls, five 3D printed skulls, and five sets of 2D atlases were used. Each participant received a single printout of teaching materials for note-taking. After the introductory lecture, three groups were assigned to three separate rooms for a 30-min self-directed learning session using cadaveric skulls, 3D printed skulls and 2D atlases, respectively. Exam proctors were assigned to each room to prevent inter-group communication, and they would not answer questions of any participants nor provide any suggestions related to skull anatomy. Learning outcomes were evaluated by post-test immediately after self-directed learning session. All types of learning materials were removed before commencing the post-test. After post-test, each participant finished a subjective evaluation questionnaire. Additionally, participants in the 3D group completed another questionnaire to evaluate the 3D printed skull model.


Subjective evaluation questionnaire and a comprehensive breakdown of all questions are shown in Table 1. The constitutional ratios of responses between the three groups are compared in Fig. 6. Overall, the responses of 3D and cadaveric skull groups were more positive than in the atlas group. Positive feedbacks (strongly agree, agree, and neutral) exceeded 85% in the 3D and cadaveric skull groups in every question. By contrast, positive feedbacks were less than 45% in the atlas groups except for the response to first question involving learning efficiency (55.7%).


Constitutional ratios of answers to subjective questionnaires. Column 1, 2, and 3 represent cadaveric skulls group, 3D printed skulls group, and atlas group, respectively. The darker the color is, the higher agreement to the statements in questionnaire. Detailed questions of subjective questionnaire shown in Table 1.


Constitutional ratios of evaluation to 3D-printed skulls. The darker the color is, the higher agreement to the statements in questionnaire. Detailed questions of subjective questionnaire shown in Table 1.


Learning anatomy from cadaveric dissection is common in traditional medical education. However, increasing ethical concerns prevent some pre-clinical students from obtaining adequate experience based on cadaveric dissection1. 3D printing can serve as an ideal complement to cadaver studies, to avoid challenges involving specimen acquisition, sanitation and ethics. 3D printing is a cost-effective and convenient tool. Nevertheless, most of the available 3D printed products have not been supported by strong evidence for teaching. RCT data comparing 3D prints with cadaveric applications in anatomy education are limited13,14,15.


All participants attained a basic knowledge of skull anatomy after the study, which suggested that the introductory lectures and group discussions were effective. The post-test total scores showed that the 3D printed model facilitated the learning of skull anatomy compared with traditional atlas and cadaveric skull models. The three groups differ significantly in their ability for structure recognition, while post-test theory test scores were not significantly different, which was possibly because structure recognition questions required the ability to build relations between structures in atlas and reality, the main difficulty in anatomy study, while theory test focused on memorization of theoretical knowledges. With respect to practical learning in anatomy, which is distinct from theoretical knowledge, cadaveric skull and 3D printed skulls were superior in determining spatial relationships and assisting students in quick learning of difficult anatomical structures17, 18. In the study of anatomy, structure recognition outweighs theoretical knowledge, which in turn demonstrates the original intent of the study, to build a 3D skull model to assist learning of sophisticated anatomy structures in a relative cheap, convenient and easily accessible way. Recent studies suggest that in the learning of complicated and detailed structures such as middle ear19, orbital cavity20, multi-component temporal bones21, ventricular structures7 and teeth22, the 3D model played an important role. Medical students, surgeons, and educational experts approved the reliability and utility of models in anatomy and surgical training. Furthermore, three RCTs have been conducted to demonstrate the role of 3D printed models in the study of spinal fractures13, cardiac anatomy14 and hepatic segment anatomy15. Our findings not only provide robust evidence to support the educational efficacy of 3D printed models, but also emphasize their major role as aids to understand and memorize spatial structures practically. 041b061a72


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