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Nikifor Solovyov
Nikifor Solovyov

Palo Alto User ID Group Troubleshooting


The output of the commands you recommended shows that the user with the IP address is indeed the same as the user in the AD group. All output is as expected. This is a lab setup so I only have one group and I can see the username is correct.




Palo Alto User ID group troubleshooting


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Find a user mapping based on an email address:> show user email-lookup+ base Default base distinguished name (DN) to use for searches+ bind-dn bind distinguished name+ bind-password bind password+ domain Domain name to be used for username+ group-object group object class(comma-separated)+ name-attribute name attribute+ proxy-agent agent ip or host name.+ proxy-agent-port user-id agent listening port, default is 5007+ use-ssl use-ssl* email email address> mail-attribute mail attribute> server ldap server ip or host name.> server-port ldap server listening port


I followed the steps in this KB article to configure group mapping but found two major gotchas. In the Authentication Profile, the user domain must be entered. After doing this, users began showing up as domain\username rather than just username. Secondly, in the group mapping configuration, user domain needed to be blank.


An important note for Windows 7/ Windows Server 2008 R2 or older operating systems to consider: On multiprocessor machines, we might have concurrent threads writing to log at the same time. In heavy logging scenarios, one of the writes attempts may fail and we may possibly lose debug log information. Concurrent processing is very common with group policy troubleshooting since you usually run "gpupdate /force" without specifying user or machine processing separately. To reduce the chance of lost logging while troubleshooting, initiate machine and user policy processing separately:


"The Group Policy service uses the distinguished name of the computer or user to determine the list of OUs and the domain it must search for group policy objects. The Group Policy service builds this list by analyzing the distinguished name from left to right. The service scans the name looking for each instance of OU= in the name. The service then copies the distinguished name to a list, which is used later. The Group Policy service continues to scan the distinguished name for OUs until it encounters the first instance of DC=. At this point, the Group Policy service has found the domain name, finally it searches for policies at site level."


In environments where a user's identity is hidden by Citrix XenApp or Microsoft Terminal Services, our User-ID Terminal Services Agent can determine which applications users are accessing. We can also identify users sharing IP addresses working on Microsoft Windows Terminal Services or Citrix. Completely transparent to the user, every user session is assigned a specific port range on your server. This allows your firewall to associate network connections with users and groups sharing one host on your network. For custom or non-standard terminal services environments, the XML API can be used to collect the user identity.


To allow customers to specify security policies based on user groups and resolve the group members automatically, User-ID integrates with nearly every directory server using a standards based protocol and a flexible configuration. Once configured, the firewall automatically retrieves user and user group information and keeps the information updated to automatically adjust to changes in the user base or within your organization.


User-based policy controls can be assembled based on the application, which category and subcategory it belongs in, its underlying technology or what the application characteristics are. Policies can be used to safely enable applications based on users or groups, in either an outbound or an inbound direction. Examples of user-based policies might include:


You can choose to assign DNs to MicroStrategy users explicitly. If none is supplied, the LDAP user's DN is assigned to the MicroStrategy user after the LDAP user is imported. MicroStrategy uses the DN to locate users and groups in the LDAP Server even if LDAP users and groups are configured to be authenticated in MicroStrategy other than via import.


If no explicit link is specified, the LDAP user is imported as a new MicroStrategy user under the LDAP Users group if the Import Users check box is selected. The user can then be treated as any MicroStrategy user and assigned privileges. The user object in the metadata for the MicroStrategy user now also contains a link to the LDAP user after the import.


Intelligence Server also allows LDAP groups to be imported. With this option selected, all the groups to which the user belongs are also imported under the LDAP Users group (similar to the imported user) when an LDAP user logs in.


If users are imported into the metadata, they have their own Inbox and personal folders. If users are not imported, regardless of whether they are part of the LDAP Users or LDAP Public group, they do not have an Inbox. Users that are not imported do not have personal folders and can save items only in public folders if they have the correct privileges and permissions.


To allow users to dynamically inherit this information, you should assign these permissions at the group level in the MicroStrategy metadata. Group membership information is dynamically determined each time an LDAP user logs into the system, according to the group they become part of.


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User Identification is a very unique feature of Palo Alto firewall with a range of enterprise directory and terminal services to map application activity and policies to usernames and groups instead of just IP addresses. Configuring User-ID empowers the Application Command Center (ACC), App Scope, reports, and logs to comprise usernames in addition to user IP addresses.


User-ID agent mapping is used to map IP address to username on the firewall. Mapping can be done with known IP address to known user name so that security rules can be enforced appropriately. User-identification defines the various techniques that are used to find the users and groups in the network and shows how user mapping and group mapping work together to enable user and group based security enforcement and visibility. User Mapping methods are as:


In the firewall, the multiple users share the same IP address, this is where a Terminal Services (TS) agent identifies and maintain the record of individual users by assigning port ranges to each one. Terminal Services agent sends information to every connected firewall of the allocated port range so that the firewalls can enforce policy based on users and user groups. Firewall can collect username-to-port mapping information from up to 5,000 multi-user systems. The number of Terminal Services agents from which a firewall can collect the mapping information varies by firewall model.


LDAP server profile should be configured before group mapping configuration profile. LDAP server profile can be configured as (Device > Server Profiles > LDAP). To define policy rules based on user or group in firewall, first we need to create an LDAP server profile that defines how the firewall can connect and authenticates to the directory server. In some models, firewall does not support the directory server natively, and this can be mapped in group by XML API.


User-Identification technology is responsible for collecting user information from multiple sources including VPNs, WLAN controllers, captive portals, directory servers, proxies and more resources. User and group information must be directly integrated into the technology platforms that secure modern organizations with policies and profiles. It gathers information about user who is using the applications in the customer network, and who may have transmitted a threat or is transferring files, thereby strengthening security policies of organization and reducing incident response times. 350c69d7ab


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