A Plague !FREE!
Basilius was the previous carrier of the Prima Macula, from around the year 541 A.D. It was his anger resulting from his predicament that led to the initiation of a plague known as the Plague of Justinian.
With pneumonic plague, the first signs of illness are fever, headache, weakness, and rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and sometimes bloody or watery sputum. The pneumonia progresses for 2 to 4 days and may cause respiratory failure and shock. Without early treatment, patients may die.
Early treatment of pneumonic plague is essential. To reduce the chance of death, antibiotics must be given within 24 hours of first symptoms. Streptomycin, gentamicin, the tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol are all effective against pneumonic plague.
In 430 BC, a plague struck the city of Athens, which was then under siege by Sparta during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). In the next 3 years, most of the population was infected, and perhaps as many as 75,000 to 100,000 people, 25% of the city's population, died. The Athenian general and historian Thucydides left an eye-witness account of this plague and a detailed description to allow future generations to identify the disease should it break out again. Because of the importance of Thucydides and Athens in Western history and culture, the Plague of Athens has taken a prominent position in the history of the West for the past 2500 years. Despite Thucydides' careful description, in the past 100 years, scholars and physicians have disagreed about the identification of the disease. Based on clinical symptoms, 2 diagnoses have dominated the modern literature on the Athenian plague: smallpox and typhus. New methodologies, including forensic anthropology, demography, epidemiology, and paleopathogy, including DNA analysis, have shed new light on the problem. Mathematical modeling has allowed the examination of the infection and attack rates and the determination of how long it takes a disease to spread in a city and how long it remains endemic. The highly contagious epidemic exhibited a pustular rash, high fever, and diarrhea. Originating in Ethiopia, it spread throughout the Mediterranean. It spared no segment of the population, including the statesman Pericles. The epidemic broke in early May 430 BC, with another wave in the summer of 428 BC and in the winter of 427-426 BC, and lasted 4.5 to 5 years. Thucydides portrays a virgin soil epidemic with a high attack rate and an unvarying course in persons of different ages, sexes, and nationalities.The epidemiological analysis excludes common source diseases and most respiratory diseases. The plague can be limited to either a reservoir diseases (zoonotic or vector-borne) or one of the respiratory diseases associated with an unusual means of persistence, either environmental/fomite persistence or adaptation to indolent transmission among dispersed rural populations. The first category includes typhus, arboviral diseases, and plague, and the second category includes smallpox. Both measles and explosive streptococcal disease appear to be much less likely candidates.In 2001, a mass grave was discovered that belonged to the plague years. Ancient microbial typhoid (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi) DNA was extracted from 3 skeletons. Because typhoid was endemic in the Greek world, it is not the likely cause of this sudden epidemic. Mt Sinai J Med 76:456-467, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Parents need to know A Plague Tale: Requiem is a stealth action game for PlayStation 5, Xbox Series S/X, Switch, and Windows PCs. It's the sequel to A Plague Tale: Innocence, and features the same primary characters: Amicia and Hugo, tightly knit siblings in 14th century France dealing with a supernatural malady that involves swarms of rats capable of overrunning and consuming entire cities full of civilians. Amicia spends the game attempting to protect her brother from both the rats and guards who have been ordered to contain the plague. Players usually have the option of trying to sneak around enemies or confront them, using weapons such as a sling, a crossbow, knives, and alchemical powders that explode and catch fire. Combat is fierce and brutal, with enemies bleeding and gurgling as they die. Environments are frequently littered with piles of dead bodies in various states of gruesome decay, and Amicia is forced to wade through gory pools of blood and bodies that cause her and her companions to gag. Young Hugo is also dragged into the violence, as he learns to control the rats and set them to swarm over and eat guards that are attempting to kill him and his sister. Both siblings are traumatized and express sadness and guilt over their actions, but that doesn't stop them from continuing to kill to survive. Parents should also be aware that dialogue contains strong language, including the word "f--k."
A PLAGUE TALE: REQUIEM is set shortly after the events of A Plague Tale: Innocence, which saw 14th-century French siblings Amicia and Hugo attempting to survive a plague of rats and the corrupt, murderous authorities attempting to control it. The sequel sees the siblings relocated to a new city, but Hugo quickly begins to experience symptoms of the mysterious, supernatural malady with which he was diagnosed in the original game, and the rats quickly begin appearing and causing chaos in their new home. Amicia and Hugo are forced once again to deal with brutal soldiers attempting to enforce a new lockdown as the rats overrun the city, forcing the brother and sister to flee and go in search of a cure for Hugo that will hopefully also end the rat plague. Play is broken into hour-long chapters set in linear levels where Amicia and her companions (sometimes Hugo, sometimes others) must: either sneak around or kill patrolling soldiers, solve puzzles by pushing carts and twisting cranks, and work out ways to avoid the rat hordes, typically by using fire to create areas of light that the rats can't enter. As play progresses, Amicia learns alchemical recipes that allow her to craft different types of ammunition for her sling and crossbow that are capable of exploding, catching fire, and dousing flames. She also gains new passive skills based on how players choose to deal with different types of situations, such as sneaking more quietly and the strength to push enemies into fires. Hugo, meanwhile, deepens his connection with the rats, eventually learning to use their senses to detect enemies and even control and direct the hordes to take down soldiers. Players also collect souvenir memories that capture moments in the game, along with beautiful feathers and flowers that illustrate and strengthen the siblings' bond.
While the fourteenth-century Black Death pandemic was the most fatal of the plague outbreaks, the disease would recur over the following centuries, including in Vienna. In 1679, the density of the city, the lack of any public sewers, and the refuse that encouraged an infestation of rats all contributed to a terrible epidemic. Available treatments were limited to bloodletting, induced vomiting, and the most basic of care, administered by the Brotherhood of the Holy Trinity religious order; large pits were excavated and heaped with the dead. In Reviews of Infectious Diseases, medical history scholars Boris Velimirovic and Helga Velimirovic cite this account:
While the massive horde of rats is the real standout enemy faction here, Amicia and Hugo also have to contend with soldiers that want to keep the spread of the plague under wraps. The massive writhing mounds of rodents are more impressive than ever before. A Plague Tale: Innocence became popular in part because of the impressive rat tech, which depicted 5,000 at once. Requiem ratchets up that figure exponentially to hit a staggering 300,000 rats at once.
God told Moses to stretch out his hand over the land of Egypt to bring a plague of locusts. The locusts covered the face of the land and swallowed up every crop and all the fruits of the trees. Afterwards there was nothing green in the trees, and all the crops in the fields had been destroyed.
ABOARD THE PAPAL FLIGHT FROM AFRICA (CNS) -- At the end of six days in African countries bloodied by war and conflict, Pope Francis said that "the biggest plague" afflicting the world today is the weapons trade.
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East Africa is in the midst of a crisis that sounds like something out of the Book of Exodus: A plague of locusts is spreading across the region, threatening the food supply of tens of millions. City-sized swarms of the dreaded pests are wreaking havoc as they descend on crops and pasturelands, devouring everything in a matter of hours. The scale of the locust outbreak, which now affects seven East African countries, is like nothing in recent memory.
In September 1994, plague struck Surat, a city in the state of Gujarat in western India. The government officials declared an international public health emergency by reporting an epidemic of pneumonic plague. When compared to the bubonic form, the pneumonic plague spreads rapidly and hence caused widespread panic, both locally and internationally. The plague in Surat was mostly pneumonic, though the bubonic form was found in three villages in Maharashtra preceding the pneumonic outbreak in Surat (Ref 3).
The incidence in Surat had large impacts on other major cities of India like Delhi and Mumbai. In the capital of New Delhi, the lack of public information on how to deal with the spread of the disease resulted in the large scale purchase of surgical masks and tetracycline. As a precaution, the administration ordered the closure of all schools and public entertainment places. The news of the epidemic and these actions taken by the government alarmed many people. Some chose to stay indoors and others who ventured out did so with masks covering their faces. Schools in Delhi reopening only five days after they were closed illustrated the uncertainty of government officials as of how to proceed with the precautionary measures. In eastern states such as Orissa, thousands of kilometers away from Surat initiated steps to check the plague outbreak. Reports from Rajasthan, which borders Gujarat, stated that the villagers launched an intensive drive to kill rats in their regions. Proper instructions as on how to proceed with the preventive measures were not given to the people. Since the disease was already spreading, killing of the flea host (rats) would force them to switch hosts and result in more human cases. The havoc caused by the epidemic was evident (Ref 4,5). 041b061a72